Low-temperature pyrolysis is a process in which crushed waste is subjected to thermal decomposition. This process occurs at temperatures from 400 ° C to 850°C. The advantage of low-temperature pyrolysis in comparison with our traditional waste incineration is, first of all, in its efficiency in terms of preventing environmental pollution.
Pyrolysis can be used to process a wide variety of waste components that are not recyclable, such as tires, used oils, plastics, and sludge. After low-temperature pyrolysis, no biologically active substances remain in the garbage, so pyrolysis waste can be stored without the risk of harm to the natural environment. The ash produced during this process has a high density, which significantly reduces the amount of garbage that is subject to further storage.
Thus, the advantages of low-temperature pyrolysis include:
easy storage and transportation of pyrolysis waste
significant reduction in waste volumes
getting energy that can be used for heating and generating electricity.
Installations or plants that process municipal solid waste by low-temperature pyrolysis have been operating in many countries since the mid-70s of the last century. It was at that time that the production of energy and heat from rubber, plastic, and other waste products by low-temperature pyrolysis was considered as a fairly promising source of energy resources.
Japan attaches the greatest importance to this process. However, it is necessary to take into account the fact that in countries where there are technologies for separate waste collection by low-temperature pyrolysis, not all waste is incinerated, but only a certain part. Due to this, the efficiency of this method of solid waste disposal is much lower there than in Russia, because our waste processing plants usually receive mixed garbage, which contains a lot of harmful substances.