The first pyrolysis plants were built in Russia (in Kiev and Kazan) in the 70s of the 19th century. Pyrolysis was mainly performed on kerosene to produce gas for lighting. Later, it was proved that aromatic hydrocarbons can be extracted from the resin formed during pyrolysis. Pyrolysis was widely developed during the 1st world war of 1914-18, when there was a great need for toluene-the raw material for the production of TNT.
After the invention of the process by German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, who worked at the Kaiser Wilheim Institute in the 1920s, many improvements and corrections were made and the name "Fischer-Tropsch" is now applied to a large number of similar processes (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or Fischer-Tropsch chemistry)
The process was invented in oil-poor but coal-rich Germany in 1919.
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The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can be considered as a reaction of reductive oligomerization of carbon monoxide, in which carbon-carbon bonds are formed, and in General it is a complex combination of a number of heterogeneous reactions, which can be represented by the total equations:
nCO + 2nH2 = (CH2)n + nH2O,
2co + nH2 = (CH2)n + no2.
The reaction products are alkanes, alkenes and oxygen-containing compounds, that is, a complex mixture of products characteristic of the polymerization reaction is formed. The primary products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are a - and I-olefins, which are converted to alkanes as a result of subsequent hydrogenation. The nature of the catalyst used, the temperature, the ratio of CO and H2 significantly affect the distribution of products. Thus, when using iron catalysts, the proportion of olefins is high, whereas in the case of cobalt catalysts with hydrogenating activity, saturated hydrocarbons are mainly formed.
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The Fischer-Tropsch process complex ( or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) is the conversion of a synthesis gas into a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons.
Synthesis gas is a stable expression that appeared in the 19th century, which then began to denote the product of carbon chemistry. Synthesis gas is a mixture of CO (carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide) and H (hydrogen). Since a variety of synthetic products can be obtained from this gas mixture using different reactions, this is why the name "synthesis gas"has appeared. From syngas in the 19th year of the last century, German scientists discovered that if you use group 8 metals as a catalyst, then at a temperature of around 200 C (+/- 100), you can get a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons.
This was a big discovery that allowed us to get hydrocarbon fuel not from oil. This was especially important for Germany after world war 1. And already in 1934, the first industrial plant was operating in Germany, and in 1938, 4 more. And during the second world war, a significant part of the fuel needs of Germany and Japan were met by hydrocarbons obtained by the Fischer-Tropsch method. Most likely, because of this sad fact, these remarkable scientists did not receive the Nobel prize